For the Final Project for this course, select any government or nonprofit organization for which there is sufficient information to allow a thorough analysis of ethical or social justice issues. You may select your own organization if it is a government or nonprofit organization, but be aware of the need for scholarly objectivity and the need to protect confidentiality. Ethical researchers never begin any project with a hidden agenda or predetermined conclusion. If you do choose your own organization, do not identify it by name or precise location.
Your Final Project should include the following:
- An introduction that describes the government or nonprofit organization, the setting, and any other information about the organization or related background that readers need in order to understand the organization and its ethical and social justice issues; a description of the ethical issues facing the organization and public administrators within the organization
- An explanation of the ethical issues related to two or more of the philosophical theories that this course introduces
- A summary of the major ethical challenges and conflicts of responsibility presented to individuals in the organization and to the organization as a whole
- A summary of the strategies that the organization uses to maintain responsible conduct
- An explanation of your recommendations for addressing the issues, including a rationale for your recommendations and an explanation of why they might be effective in addressing the issues, with consideration given to the possible involvement of guerrilla government employees
- An analysis of the factors that would affect the implementation of the recommendations by using the ethical decision-making model
- A description of the outcomes you would expect if the organization implemented your recommendations
- An explanation of how the issues you raised are related to at least two of the four social justice themes (human rights, equality, liberty, and justice)
Your Final Project must demonstrate both breadth and depth of knowledge and critical thinking appropriate to graduate-level scholarship. It must follow APA Publication Manual guidelines and be free of typographical, spelling, and grammatical errors. The project should be 13–15 pages in length (double-spaced), not including the title page, abstract, and at least 8–10 scholarly resources, excluding any organizational brochures or other nonacademic sources.
pleaseeeeeeeee follow these guide lines…its a final project and I need anyone who bid and I’ve selected to adhere to these SPECIFIC guidelines…read through thoroughly….PLAGIARISM free and NO BASIC EXPLANATION PLEASE…
MINIMUM 8 TO 10 SCHOLARLY RESOURCES AND MINIMUM 13 PAGES MAXIMUM 15
BELOW is the area that need fixing in BOLD the paper is already written so just the bold areas below need fixing because the checker the school use is saying all those bold areas is plagiarized. Do not forget when editing that the topics suppose to be in DEPTH and not just the surface of the meaning or explanation.
After the September 11 attack by the terrorist in the United States, their stakeholders in the security issues started to develop a revolution that would see an increased relationship between all the security departments on the land. This included improving the relationship between the federal, states and local homeland security. There was a great need to streamline the law enforcement agencies and intelligence organizations to increase certainty in home security.
This led to the creation of the department homeland security at the federal level. The creation of the department has seen significant changes between different security organizations including reducing the hindrances that were there before the increased relationship. The intelligence levels have reformed significantly due to the improvement in the department of home security. The changes gave been great at the federal level as well as the state levels. The state government has the lead role in the homeland security. The states have to respond in bringing together the existing public safety and the law enforcement organization (Lewis, 2006). At the state levels, the states must meet any emergency that might occur within the regions. Thus, every state must be capable of their security, providing the assets and channels to other adjacent states concerning the national security. Every state must have a robust intelligence capability, which in this case has enabled states to create data cells in the existing security structures.
Local Security and Law Enforcement
The states are also required to create fusion centers that connect the state and the local homeland security together with the law enforcement. Every law enforcement organization from the federal level, community, and state, as well as some of the foreign intelligence services, have to converge in the fusion centers to increase the intelligence levels. The state level of intelligence aims at reducing the challenges that have been facing the national or the federal level of intelligence.
Various avenues exist between the two levels to help to reduce any challenges. Though it might be hard to get do away with challenges, this integration has helped significantly. The major challenges facing the homeland security is the fact of lack of resources to create and maintain the organization. There is also an extended redundant structure, which is common at the federal level. Having them becomes a major challenge in maintaining the intelligence levels required by the department of homeland security.
Since we are living in a dynamic environment, with changes each in intelligence, crime, and terrorism levels there is need to understand the security environment in a robust manner. The need to have the homeland security is to ensure that the nation reduces much of the centralization that has existed for long. The centralization of security is as one of the factors that have reduced the capability and role of the states over their security issues and that of the federal level.
In essence, through the homeland security, the states, and all the law enforcement groups have been empowered to meet some responsibilities for disaster response. They offer significant input to the national security policies and promote the intelligence-led policing in the United States. Through the homeland security, the state, and the local authorities have significant responsibility for immigration enforcement. They are to offer border security immigration and workplace laws that are vital in curbing the security threats at the national levels. Homeland Security could help in declaring g the national disasters and acting on them in a prudent manner thus reducing the wastage of resources and slow response if no such program existed before. It is the homeland security that states and the local authorities helps in maintaining the counterterrorism tools authorized by national Acts together with a continuous maintenance of the intelligence framework that helps in initiating operations at all levels to combat terrorism.
At all levels, it is worth understanding that the ensuring national security has become like a major completion between the enemies who are continuously changing tactics, and the determined American states. Homeland security, in this case, is important in helping the nation to focus on the future rather than remain fixed in the past. The nation needs to stay ahead of the terrorist to prevent repeating the same mistakes that the nation has done in the past. Among other issues on the homeland security, include the cyber-security, economic security as well as human trafficking. In every state, homeland security offers intelligence on international engagement, transportation security and acting on disasters at the helm of every state and local authorities.
The state and the federal government need to have a robust understanding of the operational intelligence such as the dynamic terrorist attacks, a natural pandemic as well as the raging factor of flooding in the state. Effects of hurricane and blackouts are some of the hazards that require the quick government response. In responding to the issues, there are the state forces that need to be available at the point of incident.
Structure and Related Background of Homeland Security
The department of homeland security has the infrastructure, in this case, includes the fusion center program, which offers support to the law enforcement. These centers are available to the different states since they always have a comprehensive understanding of all hazards (Bullock, Haddon, and Coppola, 2013). There is also the state emergency management office that is responsible for the development of state-level response and managing emergency operations falls among the available infrastructures. All the state fusion and emergency centers offer the required intelligence together with helping each other in homeland security operations mainly through sharing information among them and the local authorities and federal agencies among various disciplines. Other relevant infrastructures available include the public health facilities; the public transport and the energy infrastructure, which provide any support services, required by the state in dealing with the hazards and the security issues.
There will always be situations that require advance preparations for crisis management. Along with the security apparatus and the issues concerning the states and federal levels of crisis, the state apparatus will need necessary prior preparation. Among the preparation is ensuring there is a critical assessment of the threats facing the state at all levels together with developing a plan to mitigate the main threats for in the specific location (Whitley, Busman, American Bar Association, 2009).
A clear study of the riskiest areas or the areas with the high level of threats will help to prepare in advance and put the necessary resources in place. The executive at the state level has to help in developing the strategy for dealing with the menace that may come because of the mentioned threats. It is the role of the governor to ensure that there is a regular test of response plans as provided by the state organs. Homeland security policy requires states to ensure that All the infrastructures require maintenance and testing since we might not know when the adversary may be such issues. It strikes or when an emergency occurs. Without the regular testing, it would be hard to know the infrastructure that requires improvement for it to effort effective service in case of any emergency.
It is factual that when an emergency occurs, then will need to recover the losses caused by such issues. With the authority and power of the state governments, they need to facilitate the creation of the short-term and long-term recovery plans for all the losses. This is with the aim of bringing back the facilities affected by the emergency to their previous position (Maniscalco and Christen, 2011). Governors are responsible for recovery after a terrorist incident. Therefore, it is necessary for the governor to be able to work all possible plans that will minimize the impact of a terrorist incident in their state. In essence, at the state level of homeland security aimed at dealing with risk management.
The delivery of homeland security services comes as an enhancement of terrorist and security acts provident through legislation. Human rights amendments such as the eleventh amendment also facilitate the provisions by the state and the federal levels in the state of emergency as required by the constitution. The USA Patriot Act plays a significant role in the development and usage of the homeland security strategy in offering a response to challenges and threats facing the American citizens.
The state government might not be able to facilitate the response to the emergency full; in such cases, there are provisions to help ask for assistance from the federal level. They will need to implement the critical infrastructure protection that will help in identifying and eliminating the threats thereof. He or she might identify the ones that they are not able to offer a quick response in case an emergency occurs. In case the governor wants to get the help from the federal level, he or she will require contacting the federal advisors who will provide then advise the federal analyst to check the connectivity between their systems and the state (Jordan, Jordan and Project Muse, 2009). The federal intelligence component will provide strategic intelligence support when required to do so.
Components of Department of Homeland Security
The department of homeland security is composed of numerous components. Every office has their part in guaranteeing that the division works viably. Among the components, there is the border protection and customs that manages the weapons that enters the United States and terrorist, then you have the coast guard that protects the economy maritime and the environment. Last but not least, you have the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that offers their support to families in the event of an emergency and making sure that they offer their to mitigate risks.
The federal law enforcement training center provides the law enforcement professionals with the training on safety and proficiency in matters of law. Customs and immigration administration promote public safety and homeland security through the implementation of federal laws while the secret service safeguards the nation’s financial infrastructure and payment systems (Abbott, Hetzel, & American Bar Association, 2010). The country administration directorate is in charge of all administrative issues of the division while the workplace of knowledge and investigation offers the utilization of data and insight from various sources to recognize distinctive threats.
With the reference, it will be straightforward for the governor to understand how the local, federal, and state authorities work in guaranteeing reaction to crisis and country security. The country security joins the national levels and the state level of intelligence and examination that is useful to giving services to the Americans.
Ethical Issues In Homeland Security
From the professional point of view, it has been argued that the Department of Homeland Security has had some of the most rigid policies in the United States. The policies were made immediately as a way of responding to the effect of the September 11. Actually, over the years, the national security issues has been on the rise since its conception. Though there has been a range of assurances on the side of the departments, most of the citizens are not sure that this can work and that they are sure that the next minute they will not have heard of the attack. An example is the bombing in Boston where many did not expect such to happen. It happened not far from the officers and in areas where one would have thought that it might not happen. These and other cases continue to glare in the faces of homeland security even as they continue assuring people and winning the trust of citizens in a way or the other.
Among the ethical issues that have been evident in the department include some incidents of misconduct among the employees under the department. It has also been accused of great and immense involvement in criminal behaviors which are not only illegal in the eyes of the law but also unethical regarding behavior and the way these employees should carry themselves.
One of the most affected department and that has been seen to have a hand mainly on unethical issues is the United States Customs and Border Protection. There has been a great number of arrests and prosecution of employees who have been directly implicated in corruption. These people have also been convicted with an alien who is also illegal.
The issues of either being directly involved in drug smuggling or aiding the process of smuggling the drugs have been common among the employees of this department. It has also been seen as a common thing to the employees of this department to be involved in issues of money laundering and conspiracy despite the presence of proper training as well as a briefing on ethics that the department of homeland security has been offering to the employees over the years.
The strategy that makes up the department of homeland security dictates that the organization should be aimed at supporting democracy ensuring democratic regimes and stable security in the United States. Their misconduct being shown by the leaders in the department as well as that of the employees does not show the actual sense of stability. There is also a disconnection between the department and the stability of security as it might be argued to be a major point of concern to the department. The National security strategy, as to whose the department has borrowed from has not been so good to ensure democracy in the United States.
The misconduct and the involvement in major unethical issues are easily eroding the trust and the confidence that was in the eyes of the public. It has been hard for the members of public to believe that the department can help in realizing the national vision on the issue to do with security. There has been some believes that some people in this departments can still conspire with terrorism or other acts to just satisfy their needs in the glaring eye of risking the homeland or the national security. They do not bank on the fact that destabilizing the security will lead to destabilizing the national economic which means there will be an economic collapse that will haunt their wellbeing even in the world.
Strategies To Deal With Unethical Issues
Dealing with ethical issues and misconduct within homeland security will help in realizing the goal of the department. This is despite the glare of misconduct and issues to do with homeland security and the entire government agencies. In the first place, the government has established a form of a directive to the various departments to call for action on the issues to do with misconduct and ethical behaviors in the department. Directives are legal documents outlining the way the department needs to establish ethical conduct and responsibilities of the employees in the department. It is an enforceable document containing the outlines of employees on their ethical responsibilities and conduct towards the duties laid out in the department of homeland security Act and policy. This is a document governed by executive order and who’s the department has to consider when dealing with the ethical issues.
The other strategy that is being used to a great extent by the department is training. Most of the employees have undergone training and reviews to ensure that they instill ethics and good conduct in the operations of this important department. The government together with this department has established proper means to which they ensure that the officers working in this department undergo proper training and get what is required of them at each level and when working in the department. It has been crystal clear that training works well when the employees give it the necessary support.
The department has also adopted the Code of Ethics for Government service for officials and employees in different branches of government. This code of conducts guides all government employees on how to conduct in the right manner. It gives the standards that are considered ethical and that are legally binding under the law.
The organization has also been keen in establishing the cause and effect of misconduct in the organization by performing reviews from time to time. This is to establish employee satisfactions, dissatisfaction as well as how they feel about the work they do and how they will continue serving the organization in a way or the other. This strategy is helpful since it can help establish the right ways to enforce good morals in the organization.
As a government agency, the department of homeland security uses taxpayer’s money to fulfill its mandate. It would, therefore, be wrong when the organization or the department fails to deliver the required services to the right people. A few individuals do not have the right to make the systems fail in the organization, and therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the department works without hindrances.
In the first place, it is good to improve the kind and level of training given to the officers operating in the state department of Homeland security. This enables them to understand more what is required of them as well as ensure that they get the skills needed to deal with the evils that are rampant in the society today. In this course, it will be possible to identify to improve their responsibility as well as improve the way they feel about their jobs. Such motivation is essential in making the officers work properly without indulging themselves in unethical activities that lead to distraction in the code of conduct for the department in general.
The other recommendation is ensuring that the officers get the necessary benefits and compensation for the work they do. It is argued that people indulge in corruption out of the urge and the feel to enrich or have their personal need solved. If the officers get the necessary pay and that they get the pay on time and in full, they will be motivated, and thus, it will be hard for them to be involved in dubious dealings that affect not only the reputation of the organization but is a threat to the national security and the people themselves.
The other recommendation is to have the employees motivated using different methods. The motivation programs will make the employees relate themselves with the work they do which in turn will make them respect it and all the processes that relate to this work. At the end of it all, the workers will avoid cases where they go against their responsibilities and thus remain ethically right (Bullock, Haddow, and Coppola, 2013). It is also necessary to have time to time review and appraisals for the employees. Performance appraisal help identifies the employees that do not fit the services that are offered by the department. Such appraisals will help make the employees remain focused on the main goal of the organization as well as ensure they work efficiently and effectively in making the organization reach its original goals. This will also be important in regulating and taming rogue employees who do have other intentions rather than the department’s main objective. It will be simple to help realize the goal of the organization when the issues of politics and negative reputations are dealt with in the organization.
Organizing the department of homeland security can convey the enthusiasm of individuals together to propel them in a very much composed way. It offers successful techniques to confront the difficulties to doing with ethics and in addition building up a feeling of self-interest. It likewise helps in making a dynamic process that will help the group to create progressively and understand the requirements in a straightforward and with less test.
One of the fundamental variables is an inability to include Individual residents in usage. These are the most influenced gathering at any given time in the general public. Subsequently, these are the most vital individuals who can be utilized to react to social issues in their neighborhood or the nation. It regards include individuals investment which furnishes a person with the chance to impact office choices. Including workers will likewise be another impressive element to the acknowledgment of the fantasy which makes them a segment of law based primary leadership handle that guarantees each resident a section in settling on a definite choice.
Moreover, this will be a procedure of including individuals who are influenced by the issue themselves. Including the general population will help them to react to the moral issues in a more appropriate manner and settle on them settle on decisions that intrigue them. There likewise have an appropriate point of view toward their requirements than some other individual who stands to speak to them at any level. The general population will give thoughts on the best way to take care of an issue in the general public and also engage them in handling the issue even later on. Their cooperation will offer a stage to make activities that will help an individual keep an issue from raising even in future. The general population influenced by the battle are along these lines the best place to handle their issues instead of utilizing other individuals or even specialists to break down and tackle the problem.
The changes that will be put in the department of homeland security will be important in bringing forth major outcomes to the realization of the departmental goals and objectives. It is clear that the recommendations will raise the level of discipline in the organization which is much required by the strategy. It will also bring changes to the services being offered by the organization. It will better the services while at the same time ensuring that the citizens, who are the taxpayers, get what they deserve as they continue expecting from the organization. Additionally, it will be possible to lower the levels of unethical issues being experienced in the country especially at the border and other entry areas across the nation. The recommendation will also help in taming rogue employees who would rather be a hindrance in the realization of the national security goals as outlined during the establishment of the State Department of Homeland Security.
The issues identified in this organization as being unethical are related to themes of social justices. Issues to do with corruption and other related crimes are a hindrance to justice in the department as well as other government agencies. It is clear these issues protect the rightful citizens to get what they deserve since they have been protected from this by the virtue of that a person stood on the way to the fulfillment of justice and coordination of processes within the department (Jordan, Jordan and Project Muse. 2009). Considering that the citizens are the taxpayers, it will be an injustice to them when their taxes are used in all matter of wrong things. The issues also related to human rights whose federal and state governments are supposed to maintain at all time. Allowing such actions in to happen in the department of homeland security gives a warrant for crashing the human right since it will be putting them at a high risk of insecurity and other related issues.
Abbott, E. B., Hetzel, O. J., and American Bar Association. (2010). Homeland Security and Emergency Management: A Legal Guide for State and Local Governments. Chicago, IL: Section of State and Local Government Law, American Bar Association.
Boon, K., Huq, A. Z., and Lovelace, D. C. (2010). Discerning President Obama’s National Security Strategy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., and Coppola, D. P. (2013). Homeland Security: The Essentials. Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Geospatial Technologies and Homeland Security Symposium, & Sui, D. Z. (2008). Geospatial technologies and Homeland Security: Research Frontiers and Future Challenges. Dordrecht, Netherlands?: Springer.
Jordan, A. A., Jordan, A. A., and Project Muse. (2009). American National Security. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lewis, T. G. (2006). Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending A Networked Nation. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Inter-science.
Maniscalco, P. M., and Christen, H. T. (2011). Homeland security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Whitley, J. D., Zusman, L. K., and American Bar Association. (2009). Homeland Security: Legal and Policy Issues. Chicago, Ill: ABA Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice.