BSC2085L- HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY LAB, chemistry homework help


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Notes for chapter 4

The Cell

Functions: maintain boundaries, metabolism, digestion, excretion, reproduction-red blood cells do not reproduce because they do not have a nucleus, movement, irritability

Parts of a cell membrane: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus

  • Plasma membrane-outer cell membrane; porous in nature. Selectively permeable by the charge, solubility, and size. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Double layer of phospholipids with proteins scattered in it. 20% of the membrane is made of cholesterol. Proteins make up half the plasma membrane. Solubility-fat soluble substances will pass through.
  • Cytoplasm– a jellylike substance present between nucleus and plasma membrane
  • Nucleus (RBC exception)-most important structure inside the cell, porous and selectively permeable.

Specializations of plasma membrane:

Microvilli-small fingerlike projections help increase surface area. Seen in the GI tract and kidney tubules

Cilia-tiny hair like projections. Found in the respiratory tract.

Flagella-found in sperm. No tail=infertile

Plasma Membrane Functions

  • Protection (Selectively permeable)
  • Transport
  • Resting membrane potential
  • Cell environment interaction

Membrane Junctions- Three types

  • Tight junctions-sticks adjacent cells together. Is impermeable. Most commonly seen in the stomach and intestines.
  • Desmosomes-anchoring junctions; found in skin and heart muscles.
  • Gap junctions-communicating junction, different things can pass through; permeable; found in heart and smooth muscle.

PM Transport:

  • Passive processes (along conc/pressure gradient), no energy utilized
  • Diffusion-high to low concentration
  • Osmosis-diffusion of water
  • Facilitated diffusion-large molecules piggybacked across the membrane
  • Filtration-high pressure to low pressure

Isotonic – Same (iso) tonicity, no net loss/gain of water

Hypertonic – high concentration of solutes; less water; Crenation: shrinking/shriveling

Hypotonic – low concentration of solutes/expands until bursts

  • Active processes, utilizes energy, and allows large molecules to be transported; moves from

low to high therefore moves up the concentration gradient

  • Active transport
  • Vesicular transport (tiny bubbles)

-Exocytosis (exo-outside)

-Endocytosis (endo-inside) taken into the cell

  • Phagocytosis: cell eating: (macrophages) (neutrophils)
  • Bulk phase endocytosis (dissolved nutrients are taken into body)
  • Receptor mediated endocytosis (hormones) takes in hormones
  • Pinocytosis-cell drinking. Seen in kidney cells and linings of the intestines.


-important for cell division

-Porous nuclear membrane which is selectively permeable

-Nucleolus- RNA and proteins

-Genetic material-DNA

Cytoplasm: activity center of the entire cell

-The activity center has certain organelles inside that carry out all the activity

Mitochondria-energy source ATP. Found in kidney and liver cells and skeletal muscles

Ribosomes-protein synthesizers; free; attached to endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Rough ER: studded with ribosome and transports proteins, also manufactures membranes. Seen in secretory cells. Pancreas. Deals with protein synthesis
  • Smooth ER: no ribosomes and concerned with lipid synthesis, metabolism, and alcohol and drug detox.
  • Calcium ions stored in both rough and smooth ER

Golgi Apparatus-packer. Packages material for secretion (pancreas). Forms lysosomes. Protein synthesis. Lots found in pancreas

Lysosomes– Digestion. Acid enzymes. Lots of phagocytes. Many found in GI tract.

Peroxisomes-detoxifiers. Oxidase enzymes. Lots found in liver and kidney cells. Neutralize free radicals.

Centrioles-conductors of cell division

Cytoskeletal elements-microtubules/microfilaments

*Cell anatomy-p. 66-67 Know Fig 4.3 and 4.4

Mitosis (know Fig 4.9)

  • Interphase-centrioles and DNA replication
  • Prophase-longest phase; chromosome formation; formation of mitotic spindle; nucleolus & nuclear membrane
  • Metaphase-chromosomes
  • Anaphase-shortest phase; centromeres split and move towards opposite poles…look V shaped; cleavage of cell begins
  • Telophase-chromosomes at opposite poles; uncoil and form chromatin; nuclear membrane reforms, spindle disappears and nucleolus reappears
  • Cytokinesis-cleavage completed and 2 daughter cells for
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