Sarah Manning, the office manager at the headquarters of Ace Tomato Company, has received numerous complaints lately. In the past few months, several administrative assistants have insisted that something be done about the amount of time that they waste waiting in line to make copies. Currently, the company has two photocopy centers dedi-cated to small copying jobs: one on the third floor and one on the seventh floor. Both centers are self-serve and have one copier with identical processing capabilities. The copying machines are not visible to the administrative assistants from their offices (physi-cally or electronically). When copying is required, the adminis-trative assistant goes to the copy room and waits in line to make the necessary copies. Sarah’s assistant, Richard Laymer, is responsible for the copiers and was assigned to investigate the situation.