nuclear chemistry, assignment help

A radioisotope used for diagnosis must emit gamma rays of sufficient energy to escape from the body and it must have a half-life short enough for it to decay away soon after imaging is completed.

2. Radioisotopes are used to preserve food because radioisotopes:

dry out the food and make the food less susceptible to bacteria and mold infestation

can kill the bacteria, mold, insect eggs and yeast that cause food to spoil quickly

make the food radioactive so no bacteria or mold can grow on the food

can keep the food from spoiling indefinitely

3. Gamma radiation:

can be easily detected with scientific instruments

frequently accompanies the emission of alpha and/or beta particles during radioactive decay

can readily penetrate most materials

does all of the above

4. An atom of uranium-238 undergoes radioactive decay to form an atom of thorium-234. Which type of nuclear decay has occurred?

alpha particle emission

beta particle emission

gamma ray emission

alpha, beta and gamma emission

5. Which of the following particles of matter could be stopped by a thin piece of aluminum foil?

alpha particles

beta particles

alpha particles and beta particles

alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays

6. The reaction between two deuterium atoms (2H) produces a 3H atom and a neutron (1n). The mass of the reactants is 4.0370 atomic mass units (amu) and the mass of the products is 4.0237 amu. The difference in mass is 0.0133 amu. How can you account for this mass difference?

The �missing� mass is due to inaccurate measurement on a very small scale.

The �missing� mass has been converted to energy.

The �missing� matter has been converted to mass.

The �missing� mass has been converted to matter.

7. Identify the missing coefficient in the following equation: superscript 235, subscript 92, U + superscript 1, subscript 0, n arrow ____ superscript 1, subscript 0, n + superscript 139, subscript 53, I + superscript 95, subscript 39, Y





8. Which of the following phrases best describes the disposal method used for high-level nuclear waste?

concentrate and contain

dilute and disperse

delay and decay

burn and bury

9. Uranium-238 decays very slowly, with a half-life of 4.47 billion years. What percentage of a sample of uranium-238 would remain after 13.4 billion years?





10. A mass of 4.00 kilograms is completely converted into energy. What is this amount of energy in joules? (1 J = 1 kg m2/s2)

1.20 x 109 J

1.33 x 10-8 J

3.60 x 1017 J

4.4 x 10-16 J

11. Which type of nuclear waste is generated from hospitals and industry, as well as the nuclear fuel cycle, and is comprised of paper, rags, tools, clothing, filters, etc., which contain small amounts of mostly short-lived radioactivity?

high level waste

intermediate level waste

low level waste

transuranic waste

12. If an atom of polonium-218 were to undergo alpha emission, followed by two beta emissions, which nuclide would result?





13. What would be the effect on the nucleus of an atom if it emitted one alpha particle and one gamma ray?

a decrease of two in atomic number and a decrease of four in mass number

an increase of one in atomic number and a decrease of two in mass number

an increase of one in atomic number and an increase of two in mass number

an increase of two in atomic number and an increase of four in mass number

14. Which of the following are considered advantages in support of using nuclear fission reactions?

reducing greenhouse gas emissions (which result from using other types of fuels)

meeting global energy demands

independence from oil importation for the generation of electricity

all of the above

15. Beta particle emission occurs when the ratio of neutrons to protons in the nucleus is:

too low to be stable

too high to be stable

exactly even and thus unstable

not exactly balanced

16. Which statement is true regarding radioactive particles subjected to an electric field?

alpha rays would be deflected toward a negative source

beta rays would be deflected toward a positive source

gamma radiation would not be deflected toward either a negative or a positive source

all of the above statements are correct

17. In a nuclear reaction, the mass-energy of the reactants is generally:

less than the mass-energy of the products

equal to the mass of the products

equal to the energy of the products

equal to the mass-energy of the products

18. A sample of Strontium-90 is found to have decayed to one-eighth of its original amount after 87.3 years. What is the half-life of strontium-90?

87.3 years

43.7 years

29.1 years

10.9 years

19. Which reaction produces the most energy per mass?





20. Nuclear fusion reactions require a large initial input of energy in order to proceed. This energy is required to overcome:

electron attraction

proton attraction

electron repulsion

proton repulsion

21. Although nuclear energy has many applications, concerns still remain in the area(s) of:

control of facilities and waste products

accidental spills, leakage and theft of materials

lack of safety training for employees

all of these

22. The half-life of a specific element was calculated to be 5200 years. What percentage of a sample of the pure element will remain after two half-lives?





23. The use of nuclear power in place of coal, oil, and natural gas greatly reduces emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

24. Two hydrogen nuclei undergo fission to produce a helium nucleus.

25. Gamma, beta and alpha radiation are all alike because:

they all have the same mass

they all have the same charge

they all can be emitted from the nucleus of an atom

they all have the same energy

26. The mass defect of a particular reaction resulted in the production of 5.50 x 1015 joules of energy. What mass (if totally converted to energy) would correspond to this amount of energy? (1 J = 1 kg m2/s2)

1.83 x 108 kg

4.95 x 107 kg

6.11 x 10-2 kg

1.64 x 10-1 kg

27. Radon-222 is a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days. How long would it take for fifteen-sixteenths of a sample of radon-222 to decay?

15.28 days

30.56 days

45.84 days

49.66 days

28. Two protons, when joined together, have less mass than two single separate protons; this �lost� amount of extra mass can be justified by Einstein’s formula, E = mc2.

29. What is the mass of a beta particle?

the mass of a proton

the mass of a helium nucleus

the mass of a neutron

the mass of an electron

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